Switzerland maintains one of the world's highest standards for the manufacturing of precious metals bars, including palladium bars. Swiss palladium bars are manufactured by one of four major precious metals refineries - Argor-Heraeus, PAMP, Valcambi and Credit Suisse. Additionally, both Credit Suisse and UBS issue their own palladium bars which are also manufactured by Valcambi and Argor-Heraeus respectively. All palladium bars manufactured in Switzerland meet all international standards in addition to the SNB's precious metals standards - these include the LBMA, the LPPM and the COMEX. All palladium bars manufactured in Switzerland have a minimum fineness of 999 fine.